Zero Knowledge Proof Protocol
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Zero Knowledge Proof Protocol: Beginner’s Guide

Zero Knowledge Proof Protocol

What Is ZKP

When you produce your driver’s licence to the bartender for ID verification, aren’t you exposing a lot about yourself? If this is the case, one must find a technique to share just the data individuals wish to share, rather than revealing all the information. The advent of information capitalism necessitates the development of solutions that protect user data.

However, although Blockchain is a trustworthy option for the needed privacy and security of information sharing, transparency is a drawback. As a result, Zero Knowledge Proof (ZKP) has emerged as one of the most popular methods for ensuring the anonymity of transactions. Blockchain has seen significant developments in recent years, as the following explanation explains.



Since Blockchain’s inception, cryptography has been seen as a critical component. In reality, blockchain cryptography is the primary reason for its widespread acceptance across various sectors and by several businesses. When a new cryptographic protocol or method based on mathematical foundations was introduced, the ZKP Blockchain applications were born.

A new era in cryptography began with the invention of the zero-knowledge proof. One of the most renowned cryptographic innovations with a wide range of uses, such as nuclear disarmament, is one of the most important examples. 

 

Types of ZKP

Before we get to the ZKP blockchain combo, let’s take a quick look at the types of ZKPs. Interactive and non-interactive zero-knowledge proofs are the most prevalent ZKP types. 

  • Interactive ZKPs require the prover to do a sequence of acts to persuade the verifier of a given truth. In interactive ZKPs, the sequence of activities is linked to mathematical probability principles. 

 

  • Using non-interactive ZKPs, the prover might design all difficulties, and the verifier could reply afterward. Collusion is less likely with non-interactive ZKPs, although detecting the experiment sequence requires extra software and equipment.

 

  • Succinct Non-Interactive Arguments of Knowledge (zk-SNARKs) are another particular ZKP category that has lately developed. One of the most common zero-knowledge proof techniques is zk-SNARK. A quadratic equation that incorporates public and private data and inputs may be defined using this tool. Then, the verifier may verify the transaction evidence to complete it. 

ZCash, a cryptocurrency, is the most well-known use of zk-SNARKs. Additionally, zk-SNARKs may be used to verify an individual’s age without revealing their identity. 

 

Properties of ZKP

To be adequately explained, a zero-knowledge proof requires three distinct qualities. They’re as follows:

Trueness:

If both users adhere to the rules, the verifier will be persuaded without any further assistance from the user.

Confirmed:

If the assertion is untrue, the verifier would be unconvinced under any circumstances. As a result, (the likelihood of untruth is tested to verify that it’s zero)

Zero-knowledge:

The verifier would have no further information in either circumstance.

Researchers are looking for ways to improve the accuracy of the procedure and reduce the number of interactions required between two peers. Essentially, the idea is to reduce the quantity of communication and shift to a single reference statement to maintain confidentiality.

For some time now, zero-knowledge-proof applications have been rising in prominence. But this isn’t a novel idea that sprang out of nowhere. Over the last two decades, it has been a fixture in the neighbourhood. Researchers have increased the system’s production and efficiency.

A statement may be proven in a matter of seconds, thanks to today’s technology. It is now possible to communicate directly with the Blockchain.

 

How Does It Work

There are several reasons to use ZKPs in Blockchain, and you should already be aware of them. A symbiotic connection between the ZKP blockchain and industry leaders, experts, and decision-makers hasn’t been spoken about as much as it should. ZKPs can support the expansion of Blockchain while simultaneously ensuring that users have more control and freedom over their data. Because of this, it is only natural to question how ZKPs may change the world of Blockchain technology.

Let’s look at how zero-knowledge proofs (ZKPs) are altering the blockchain system to find out how ZKPs are changing it.

Blockchain-based Messaging Apps

Messaging is the primary use case for ZKPs in Blockchain. When it comes to protecting one’s personal information, end-to-end encryption is a must-have. Communication between two people should be protected from prying eyes by using encryption.

Most messaging services demand that users authenticate themselves to the server, and the server must identify the user. On the other hand, zero-knowledge proof enables the building of end-to-end confidence in the communications world without omitting any further information. In the context of Blockchain, ZKP’s use in messaging apps is thus a critical application.

Processes of Verification and Authentication

Enterprises have gradually begun to place a high value on securely transmitting sensitive data, particularly in the rapid expansion of information systems and associated capabilities. With the promise of better security than zero-knowledge proof may give, it can be the appropriate platform for the transfer of sensitive information such as authentication information.

A safe route for users to access and utilize their data may be created using zero-knowledge proofs. Consequently, in the worst-case situation, ZKPs can significantly reduce the risk of data loss. Next-Generation File System Control

It’s also possible that zero-knowledge proofs might revolutionize file system control in the future, as well. Users, data, and logins may benefit from additional security levels provided by a zero-knowledge guarantee. Consequently, data saved in file systems protected by ZKPs may be difficult to hack or manipulate.

Complimentary assistance with even the most difficult types of documentation

Zero-knowledge proofs may also be used for complex documentation operations in the blockchain realm. It may help enable the encryption of data in segments. Since users can easily manage individual blocks, they may allow access for a particular person. It also guarantees that other users’ access is restricted. To offer the most excellent protection for complicated material, ZKPs can prohibit access to non-authorized personnel.

Keeping Your Stuff Safe

Concerns about storage utility may be addressed thanks to the ZKP blockchain partnership broadly. In terms of storage protection, ZKPs are regarded as one of the most valuable resources available. Proofs of zero-knowledge contain both the information stored in the storage unit and a security mechanism for that storage unit. Most importantly, the access routes are protected by robust protections, allowing for a smooth and highly secure experience.

Protective Measures for Personal Data

Zero-knowledge proof plays a crucial part in determining the methods used by Blockchain to update transactions. ZKP may provide a high degree of security for all blocks containing sensitive banking data, such as account balances and transaction histories.

Banks can only make changes to the needed blocks when a user requests information due to the high degree of security. As a result, the other blocks remain unaltered, ensuring that the whole system is protected.

Democratizing the Verification of Voters’ Authentication

Using zero-knowledge proof with Blockchain is most often used to validate votes in democratic elections. ZKPs, which record votes on a public blockchain, may offer dependable solutions for auditable voting.

Consequently, there would be no need for third-party verification of voting procedures, and censorship would be eliminated. Voters’ sensitive personal information may be protected by ZKPs, enabling them to demonstrate their eligibility to vote.

 

Blockchain Transaction Verification Streamlining

The case of ING is another notable ZKP blockchain implementation in the real world. ING has unveiled a solution that uses ZKPs in conjunction with Corda, a well-known business blockchain platform, to assure the legitimacy of transactions. ZKPs have opened Corda’s privacy and security options to a broader audience. However, it now serves two purposes at once.

 

Advantages of ZKP 

  • It’s critical to grasp the advantages of ZKPs after having a firm grasp on the essential explanations and various classifications of ZKPs.

 

  • The simplicity of zero-knowledge proof is the most significant advantage. Because zero-knowledge warranties don’t need sophisticated encryption techniques, users may use the most apparent benefit of zero-knowledge guarantees.

 

  • ZKPs, on the other hand, are linked with more robust security, particularly with the requirement that no information be revealed.

 

  • Zero-knowledge proofs may be used to promote global blockchain inclusion by providing a unique mix of privacy and scalability. Zero-knowledge-proof advantages are usually a top priority when discussing privacy.

 

  • Access to services requiring personal data or identity is not compromised since individuals are aware of the security of their personal information.
  • Adopting ZKPs as a means of attaining privacy would be encouraged by an ever-growing need for a more secure future.

 

Disadvantages of ZKP

  • The Zero-Knowledge Proof contains around 2K calculations that take a certain amount of time to complete. Because of the time it takes to process, Zero-Knowledge Proof is inefficient.

 

  • Sending verification and proof messages might be corrupted or lost in transit.

 

  • The secret must be a numerical value to meet the requirements of the Zero-Knowledge Proof.

 

ZKP’s real-world impact on Blockchain

So far, we’ve gained an understanding of how zero-knowledge proofs may be used on the Blockchain. Let us now turn our attention to the practical effects of implementing ZKPs on a blockchain. 

Many industries, such as information system management platforms, government, and technology, have used blockchain technology. Zero-knowledge proofs can alter the importance of trust in relationships because of their ability to build enhanced trust and credibility. Let’s look at some of the best instances of how ZKPs have influenced blockchain technology. People, governments, and corporations are forming new relationships in the modern world

ZKPs and Blockchain have the potential to have a significant influence on how people, businesses, and governments interact. Facts may be proven without divulging any further information using zero-knowledge evidence. ZKPs, on the other hand, can assist us in building a new society where every transaction is guaranteed to be secure.

With ZKPs, users no longer have to rely on their judgment. When exchanging information, the recipient should verify the data’s integrity and risk data breaches. ZKPs use privacy-enhancing technologies to modify the way data is sent.

Consequently, ZKPs may contribute to creating a society where technical advancements replace the need for trust. ZKPs are critical in ensuring that sensitive data is sent securely and unaffected by interception. It may also be used in mobile networks, the Internet of Things (IoT), and online conversations, making passwords unnecessary.

 

Structure Of A ZKP

Three successive acts between participants A and B provide the basic framework of a zero-knowledge proof. A witness, a challenge, and a reaction are used to describe these acts. 

Witness:

When A knows the secret, a particular set of questions can be adequately answered by A at all times. In the beginning, A selects a random question from the list and calculates a proof. As a follow-up, A provides B with the evidence. 

Challenge:

Next, B picks a question from the set and interrogates A for the answer.

Response:

A examines the answer and gives it back to B.

B can then verify that A is telling the truth based on his response. The operation may be repeated as many times as desired, until the probability of A giving the correct answer becomes low.

We can understand this through examples

  1. Ali Baba Cave
  2. Two balls and color blind friend
  3. Where’s Wally?

 

Is ZKP an excellent addition to Blockchain?

No complicated encryption methods are required with zero-knowledge cryptography, which is one of its primary benefits. It doesn’t need anybody to give up any personal information, making it completely secure. ZKPs are known for speeding up transactions on the Blockchain, an additional perk.

 

Conclusion 

We anticipate you to develop more interest in ZKP’s more considerable applicability in the decentralized world now that you understand the idea of ZKP and its breadth in the Blockchain domain.