Blockchain Glossary

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z #

A

ABI (Application Binary Interface) 

A linking of two binary software modules, usually one of which is a repository and the second of which is being used by the user.

ACCOUNT

A pair of public and private keys grants you accessibility and command over tokens stored at a certain address. 

ACTOR

An entity that could participate in a system or activity in the blockchain sector.

ADDRESS

The personal key’s global address there in the blockchain sector. Addresses identify actors or accounts and are frequently written in hexadecimal format.

AIRDROP

Airdrop means of distributing tokens into wallet addresses using digital money or tokens. Airdrops were occasionally used only for marketing in return for easy actions like sharing, referring, or downloading an app.

AIR-GAPPING

A security technique that prevents computers from linking to the web or any other unsecured external connection.


ALT-COIN

Anything but Bitcoin as a currency or token.

API (Application Programming Interface)

A component of a distant server that transmits and receives requests.

APPCHAIN

Developers recently started building app-specific chains tailored and optimized for particular applications’ requirements as interest in utilizing public blockchains for various apps has increased; these are called app chains.

AML (ANTI-MONEY LAUNDERING) 

A body of international regulations was established to reduce the ability of criminal individuals or groups to launder money. Within various countries, these guidelines and legislation are implemented for cryptocurrencies with diverse results.

ASIC (Application Specific Integrated Circuit) 

ASICs seem to be silicon chips created to perform a particular function. An ASIC used for cryptocurrency mining will perform a computation to obtain values that offer the required result when added to something like a hashing algorithm.

ATTESTATION LEDGER

A register/account ledger was made to support or document certain transactions. The attestation ledger is frequently used to confirm that a transfer has occurred or to confirm the legitimacy of goods or transactions.

B

BANKING SECRECY ACT (BSA)

The United States approved legislation in 1970 requiring financial institutions to help law enforcement identify and stop money laundering. BSA regulations include requiring the reporting of specific actions, maintaining client records, and placing restrictions on the types of financial instruments that may be bought or traded.

BITCOIN

The initial and most widely used cryptocurrency that uses a blockchain as its decentralized ledger

BLOCK

A specific single data segment. Blocks often contain a list of operations or other activities that must be carried out to process the information contained inside.

BLOCKCHAIN TRILEMMA

Decentralization, security, and scalability are the three factors that make up the “blockchain trilemma,” which is a challenging choice (or speed). In globally dispersed networks, these three parts are either required or desirable and frequently create a system to optimize for one sacrifice on some other. Read more about Blockchain Trilemma.

BLOCKCHAIN (PUBLIC) 

An unchangeable, peer-to-peer ledger with a mathematical framework for recording online transactions (or information) that is extremely difficult to forge yet still available to everyone.

BLOCKCHAIN 1.0

The blockchain tech version emphasized carrying out straightforward token transactions. Despite their limited capabilities and breadth, blockchain 1.0 networks proved the core blockchain technologies & demonstrated that there was a marketplace for them.

BLOCKCHAIN 2.0

The blockchain tech version that made smart contracts & chain-wide processing possible. Blockchain 2.0 networks provide features beyond straightforward peer-to-peer (P2P) transfer of value and are commonly constructed upon Turing-complete computer languages.

BLOCKCHAIN 3.0

The blockchain tech version prioritizes durability & compatibility. Smart contracts are normally used with this version of blockchain.

BLOCK DEPTH

There is the distance between a block and the most current block (most frequently inserted) in the blockchain. A block will have a block depth = 5 if it is five blocks before the most recent block.

BLOCK EXPLORER

A computer program that enables users to access and examine data stored on a blockchain & usually has a graphical user interface (GUI).

BLOCK HEIGHT

The distance from the origin (zeroeth) block to something like a block’s location inside the blockchain. A chain’s fifth block will have a block height equal to five.

BLOCK REWARD

For blockchains with something like a built-in cryptocurrency, miners who create a block can select a certain amount of tokens to be randomly produced and transferred to a certain address. This award thanks the miner for contributing to the system and encourages other miners to participate.

BLOCK TIME

The time it takes for something like a transaction block to somehow be verified by the system, whether by miners underneath PoW or through validators underneath PoS, is called “block time.”

BRAIN WALLET

A blockchain account is created using your custom seed phrase, passcode, or passphrase. The wallets created from these sentences are unsafe because humans cannot produce sufficient entropy or unpredictability; brain wallets can indeed be brute-driven by extremely fast machines.

BRIDGE

A device that connects designed to transfer assets between networks.

BUG BOUNTY / BOUNTY

Payment is given for disclosing bugs and vulnerabilities within computer programming.

BUSINESS LOGIC LAYER

A section of code that specifies how commercial transactions must be conducted

BUSINESS NETWORK CARD

It gives users, entities, or nodes the details they need to join a blockchain business network.

BYTECODE

Bytecode seems to be a “low-level” programming language, as opposed to a “high-level” language that is better legible by humans. It is designed to be processed by computers.

BYZANTINE FAULT TOLERANCE

A network’s capacity to reach consensus correctly at any moment, providing that not over one-third of its participants are malevolent.

BYZANTIUM FORK

In October 2017, the Ethereum network had a “hard split.”

C

CASPER

Combining proof of labor with proof of stake is a consensus method. Ethereum will use Casper as a bridge to prove of stake.

CDN (CONTENT DELIVERY NETWORK)

Enables a swift shift in the resources required to load online content.

CENTRALISED

A procedure or system where authority, power, and reality are derived from a single (i.e., central) origin.

CERTIFICATE AUTHORITY (CA)

A central organization that links identities to public and private keys in a personal key infrastructure.

CHAIN OF CUSTODY

A product’s complete ownership history, from its initial usage as raw resources to its eventual end consumer.

CHAIN CODE

A smart contract goes under another name.

CLIENT

Software operating locally on a machine that accesses data made accessible by a distant computer is referred to as a “client” in computing. A “client” in open public blockchains is a program that performs the real job of synchronizing block data, validating transactions, and taking part in global agreements. A cryptocurrency application wallet is often included with a client. The maintenance of Besu’s and Teku’s Ethereum users has received help from ConsenSys.

CLOSED SOURCE

Private software whose source code is restricted to the general public is known as closed-source software. Although the built components may be accessible in the shape of an operable application, only the initial software developer has access to them and may modify them.

CODEFI

Codefi, a subsidiary of ConsenSys, is an acronym for “Commerce & Decentralized Finance” and develops software for commercial and economic use cases.

COIN

The word “coin” has several variations. In a strict sense, a coin might be described as

A cryptocurrency is generated on a blockchain as an exchangeable token (each one is similar) as the network’s operational token or via a smart contract installed on the system.

The proverb “not your credentials, not your coin” relates to bitcoins; many individuals will use the word “coins” as a synonym for “bitcoin.”

Another point to consider is that, even though coins are presented as a kind of symbol of worth, that value might differ greatly from one “coin” to the other. A coin may stand for the worth of the platform’s computing resources, being “pinned” to the worth of fiat money, or fluctuate following the value assigned to intangible resources such as NFTs, participation, or digital commodities, to mention a few.

COINBASE (COMPANY)

An American bitcoin brokerage is called Coinbase. Coinbase is the biggest platform in the United States and among the largest around the globe in terms of its client base and trading volume. Among the hundreds of cryptocurrencies in the environment, it only retains a tiny amount of marketable cryptocurrencies relative to other platforms.

COINBASE (MINING)

The address toward which block incentives are sent is also known as the coinbase of a block.

COLD WALLET / COLD STORAGE

A never-connected offline web wallet. These wallets guard against online cryptocurrency hacks.

COMMAND-LINE-INTERFACE (CLI)

A user interface that uses text.

Compared to a GUI, CLIs might offer more basic functionality and accessibility to the operating system, but this comes at the expense of attractiveness. CLIs are often designed with developers in mind rather than the typical user. They can show off the program’s capability without wasting hours creating a more capable user interface.

COMPOSER CLI

Command line with Hyperledger Fabric enabling administrative activities

COMPOSER REST SERVER

Creates a rest server but also related API out of a blockchain that has been deployed.

CONFIRMATION

A blockchain operation receives a confirmation once a system has validated it. This occurs using a method known as mining underneath a Proof of Work (PoW) agreement mechanism and as verification under a Proof of Stake (PoS) consensus protocol. Ideally, a transfer cannot be undone or double-paid after it has been correctly verified.

The difficulty of a double spending assault increases with the number of approvals a transaction gets.

CONSENSUS

The process through which several peers, also known as nodes, on such a public blockchain agree on the legitimacy of transactions presented to the system. Proof of Work (PoW) and Proof of Stake are the two main consensus procedures (PoS).

CONSENSUS MECHANISM – PROOF OF AUTHORITY (POA)

The PoA algorithm is a variant of the PoS method. With PoA, you risk your identity rather than bitcoin (wealth). This entails freely revealing your identity in return for the ability to validate blockages. Your harmful behavior will be partially reflected in your reputation as a checker. PoA blockchains demand a robust KYC procedure.

CONSENSUS MECHANISM – PROOF OF BURN (POB)

PoB permits miners to “incinerate” or demolish bitcoin, which gives them the power to increase the number of blocks following the amount of money burned. In essence, miners Spend their currencies or tokens on virtual mining equipment that enables users to mine blocks. The size of the resulting virtual mining gear increases with the amount of cash the miner burns. Miners transmit money to a verified non-spendable address to be burned. Since this procedure uses fewer resources, PoB is sometimes known as PoW without power loss. Based on the architecture, miners are permitted to burn either the bitcoin’s native currency or perhaps the value of an alternate chain in return for rewards paid out in the latter.

CONSENSUS MECHANISM – PROOF OF CAPACITY (POC)

Instead of utilizing the processing capability of the mining equipment (as in PoW) or perhaps the miner’s investment in the currency, PoC enables the network’s processing equipment to determine the mining rights by using the accessible hard disk space (as in PoS).

CONSENSUS MECHANISM – PROOF OF STAKE (POS)

In PoS, miners stake a portion of the bitcoin on the ledger to raise the likelihood that they will be chosen to verify a block. The interest is tied away as a reserve to guarantee that the miner verifies the block by the regulations. The reserve will be “fired” or eliminated if the miner breaks the restrictions. PoS uses fewer resources than PoW because fewer miners compete in computing the equation.

CONSENSUS MECHANISM – PROOF OF WORK (POW)

In PoW, miners keep applying transaction information and randomly selected sequences to a simple algorithm until they get the desired result. Then, additional miners check the working proof using the purported input text and the exact formulas to determine whether the result matches what was supplied. The operation is confirmed and posted to the network if the outcomes are identical. PoW is resource-intensive because several miners compete to calculate the equation, which needs a lot of processing power.

CONSENSUS MECHANISM

The method used to verify transactions across a decentralized blockchain network with Byzantine Fault Tolerance.

CONSENSYS

ConsenSys, an abbreviation for Consensus Systems, is the industry leader in blockchain systems engineering. You already understood that since you were here.

CONSORTIUM

A business- or business-group-run private blockchain network. Consortium networks handle data that should not be made public but has to be sent between two parties in an impermanent manner.

CONSTANTINOPLE FORK 

In February 2019, the Ethereum network underwent one of its “hard splits.”

CONTRACT

see ‘SMART CONTRACT.’

CRUD

Create, retrieve, update, delete

CRYPTO

Although this prefix has Greek roots, cryptography is where we get it from today.

Innovations frequently alluded to as “crypto” techniques are supported by cryptographic techniques and tools (such as public/private key combinations) that permit cutting-edge functionality and protection. Naturally, “cryptocurrency” is frequently abbreviated to “crypto”; therefore, this new sector is rife with examples where words are modified or reduced with “crypto.”

A contrast between “crypto,” which refers to DeFi and other monetary use instances of the system, and “Web3,” which describes the shift of Web operations to more decentralized practices and platforms, may have started with the birth of the phrase “Web3.”

CRYPTO BOUNTIES

Bitcoin-based bounty payments

CRYPTO COMPLIANCE

A general phrase used to ensure cryptocurrency initiatives adhere to all applicable rules and legislation.

CRYPTOECONOMICS

Decentralized finance economic study, particularly that of the MIT Cryptoeconomics Lab.

CRYPTO ASSETS

A helpful catch-all phrase that refers to all on-chain assets, including cryptocurrencies, NFTs, and many other, more recent items.

CRYPTOCURRENCY

The generation of currency units and the confirmation of money transactions are governed by virtual money centered on mathematics and employ encryption methods. Distributed ledger system is used to keep track of cryptocurrency transactions, which are carried out without the assistance of a banking system. Read more about Cryptocurrency in detail.

CRYPTOGRAPHIC HASH FUNCTION

A procedure that provides a singular fixed-length string. For every distinct input, a different string is returned. Used to generate a string’s “digital ID” or “digital footprint.”

CRYPTOGRAPHY

In its wider context, cryptography is the science of “hidden writing,” or encrypting text with a code. Nowadays, it frequently refers to the use of this idea in computers, networking, and the movement of data via computer systems and computer networks. Although the blockchain is freely available to everyone, control over its state and the capability to move investments within it is facilitated via cryptographic tools, including the Secret Recovery Phrase. Cryptography was already shielded as freedom of speech inside the United States and offered the technical basis that enables public blockchains to be public.

CURRENCY

A widely recognized or used set of abstract concepts of one’s capacity to settle obligations. Currency represents money. The U.S. Dollar serves as the country’s official unit of exchange.

D

DAO

A digitally decentralized autonomous organization is a strong and incredibly adaptable organizational structure constructed on a blockchain is a digital decentralized autonomous organization.

DAPPS

Decentralized Software. Read more about DAPPS in detail.

DDOS ATTACKS  

In a denial-of-service assault, a server linked to Web’s services is temporarily or permanently interrupted to render a computer or network service inaccessible to its target purposes.

DECENTRALISED

A distributed computer system can handle transactions without needing a centrally situated middleman.

DECENTRALISED FINANCE (DEFI)

Finance sectors handled decentralized include loans, borrowing, mutual funds, and hedge fund managers.

DECENTRALISED EXCHANGE (DEX)

A decentralized exchange is a network for trading cryptocurrency that relies on blockchain capabilities.

DEFI

Web3’s financial sector, if bitcoin is to be considered its currency, is DeFi.

DEPOSIT

Depositing sends certain token(s) to an address apart from one person, most frequently to a smart contract managed by a “protocol,” like a decentralized exchange, DAO or multiverse, computer games, and so on.

DERIVE / DERIVATION

Something is said to be derived when it is obtained from a primary source.

DEVCON

For Ethereum Developers’ Conference, use this abbreviation.

DIFFICULTY

The idea describes how challenging Proof of Work mining is while verifying blocks inside a blockchain network.

DIFFICULTY BOMB

A significant component of Ethereum’s transition to Ethereum 2.0 and even a Proof of Stake (PoS) consensus method was the difficulty bomb, the Beacon Chain, and many other technologies.

DIGITAL ASSET

Anything structured as a binary source, whether text or media.

DIGITAL IDENTITY

The system or Web equivalent of something like a person’s or an entity’s true identity.

DIGITAL SIGNATURE

A formula used to demonstrate the legitimacy of digital assets

DIGITAL SIGNATURE – MULTI-SIGNATURE

Multisig addresses need several digital signatures (and thus several keys) to verify a transaction or communication to boost security.

DIGITAL SIGNATURE – RING

It is an electronic signature that may be executed by several parties, each of whom has a key. It is hard to tell which group member authorized the transaction; that is a characteristic of a ring signature.

DIRECTED ACYCLIC GRAPH (DAG)

A directed graph construction without any loopholes.

DISTRIBUTED

A distributed method differs from a decentralized system in that it distributes processing and information over numerous nodes. Yet, choices can still be made centrally using all available system information.

DISTRIBUTED LEDGER

A database that each member in some kind of big network maintains and updates individually. The distribution is distinct since information is not sent to different nodes by a centralized authority. Read more about Distributed Ledger in detail.

DISTRIBUTED LEDGER TECHNOLOGY (DLT)

Technology’s broader category, about which blockchain is a component. A digital asset transfer recorder that doesn’t have centralized data storage or administration and records asset transactions & their information simultaneously in numerous identical copies.

DOUBLE SPEND ATTACK

A dishonest effort to persuade two distinct parties that either of two contradictory transactions is legitimate. In this case, both transactions are legitimate independently but not combined. Therefore, there is only one recorded there in the Blockchain.

DOUBLE SPENDING

The same coins/tokens have been used or traded more than once, which is a specific concern with cryptocurrencies.

E

EIP (ETHEREUM IMPROVEMENT PROPOSAL) 

The Ethereum Improvement Proposal (EIP) is an open and transparent procedure via which proposals are made regarding how to alter the overall operation of the Ethereum network; the authorized repository is located here.

ENCRYPTION

Both the art & science of entering data to restrict who may read it or how it will be studied is called encryption, which means literally “in a secret place.”

ENS

Similar to the DNS on the old internet, the Ethereum Name Service is a mechanism run by a DAO that allocates human-readable & simple-to-remember names to Ethereum addresses & resources.

ENTROPY

Entropy is a term used to describe “randomness” in the domain of cryptography; broadly speaking, the more unpredictable something seems to be safer safe, it is.

ENUM

Abbreviation for “enumeration”—a predetermined set of potential values. One may classify the collection of US states as an enum.

EOA

Externally Owned Account

EPOCH

An epoch is a way to track time or blockchain development on a specific blockchain.

ERC

Standard Ethereum comment request

ERC-20 TOKEN STANDARD

The acronym ERC stands for Ethereum Request for Comment, and the standard allocation code precedes it. The bulk of tokens currently used upon Ethereum is created following the smart contract formal definition ERC-20.

ERC-721 TOKEN STANDARD

As previously mentioned, this is an additional specification for Ethereum smart contracts that permits the creation of non-fungible tokens; this is the standard that gave rise to an NFT.

ETHER (DENOMINATIONS) 

The money known as “ether” or “ETH” comes in various denominations; for a complete description, check the official Ethereum Homestead paper here.

ETHER (ETH) 

The coin is used as the foundation for the Ethereum blockchain.

ETHEREUM

A blockchain application with an integrated computer language enables users to create decentralized ledgers tailored to their specific requirements. Activities on the ledger are validated using smart contracts. Read more about Ethereum in detail.

ETHEREUM ENTERPRISE ALLIANCE (EEA)

A group of large- to medium-sized businesses have publicly pledged their assistance in advancing the Ethereum protocol and producing applications.

ETHEREUM VIRTUAL MACHINE (EVM)

A virtual state device for the Ethereum blockchain which executes state changes and processes transactions using eWASM bytecode.

ETHERSCAN

A site called etherscan.io provides a cross-referenced, navigable representation of Ethereum & associated blockchains.

EWASM

An Ethereum Virtual Machine-implemented web assembly (WASM) model that gives blockchains further capabilities.

EXCHANGE

A platform for exchanging cryptocurrency tokens for money or any other tokens.

F

FAUCET

A faucet is a bitcoin distribution program, sometimes a relatively straightforward webpage, other times quite complicated. It is considerably more typical for a faucet to be available on a testnet, even though some systems, particularly those in the early launch phases, supply “actual Mainnet” credits via faucets. Such faucets are employed by individuals wishing to practice an activity on that blockchain risk-free or programmers testing their dApps or smart contracts before releasing them mostly on Ethereum Mainnet. Test faucet tokens are distributed exclusively on prototypes and can’t be converted into mainnet counterparts.

FIAT CURRENCY

Money issued by the government.

FINAL, FINALITY

When a trade can no more be modified, it is deemed “final.” In some way, this occurs after the transaction has received enough approvals, but in reality, a transaction is complete once the chain containing it is mined or confirmed. Remember that this illustrates a basic principle of blockchains: despite conventional monetary systems where costs may be “undone,” trade on a blockchain cannot be undone. The trade is irreversible once finality has been reached.

FINNEY

A measure of ether.

FORK

A phrase from cooperative software design, “forking,” takes an existing program or body of code and changes it to produce a different edition. A “fork” produces an alternate blockchain somewhere at the layer of the blockchain protocol. Forks have been frequently created on purpose to improve a system. Hard forks produce a fresh edition of the network that needs to be embraced to continue participating, whereas soft forks result in two somewhat compatible chains. A disputed hard fork may result in the creation of two distinct blockchain networks.

FUNGIBLE

An item’s ability to be exchanged for other similar goods, USD and EUR, for instance, are interchangeable. Euros can be used to express USD worth.

G

GAS (ETHEREUM) 

Calculates the amount of effort required to accomplish an activity on Ethereum

GAS LIMIT

Based on the gas limit, you can only spend a certain amount of gas on each transaction upon that Ethereum network.

GAS PRICES

The number of tokens will be assessed like a charge for each bit of gas utilized by a shared ledger during operation in the blockchain sector. A system may adapt dynamically to variations in bandwidth requirements depending on market forces, thanks to gas pricing.

GENESIS BLOCK  

The very first blockchain block.

GITHUB

A git-based web-based hosting solution for version control

GOLANG (GOOGLE LANGUAGE) 

Google launched it in 2009. A programming language built on C is called golang.

GOSSIP PROTOCOL    

A computer-to-computer communication technique or process called a “gossip protocol” is built about how social media sites distribute data or how diseases propagate. It’s a protocol for communication.

GOVERNANCE

The management of a blockchain firm determines the company’s direction.

GRAPHICAL USER INTERFACE (GUI)

Presenting the user with information using aesthetically pleasing on-screen features, such as windows & taskbars.

GWEI

A tiny and widespread ETH denomination used to specify gas pricing rather frequently.

H

HALVING

Numerous cryptocurrencies are rare digital commodities because their supply is limited.

HARD FORK    

Modifies the data on a public blockchain. It needs an entire network to update and accept the latest edition.

HARDWARE WALLET: 

A physical object called a hardware wallet is utilized to hold cryptographic keys and, in most cases, sign operations.

HASH

The result of a cryptographic operation that converts inputs into predetermined but seemingly random outputs. Information is effectively identified using hashes.

HASH COLLISION

Identical output hashes from two different inputs.

HASH FUNCTION    

A mapping function for data of any size

HASH RATE

The speed at which a given computer can carry out a certain hashing operation.

HASHGRAPH

A decentralized ledger that employs a consensus algorithm similar to tangle and even a gossiping protocol to transmit transactions.

HD WALLET

First developed for Bitcoin, hierarchical deterministic wallets allow the formation of an extremely high variety of accounts based on one seed word.

HEAT STORAGE / HOT WALLET

It is a wallet immediately linked to the internet, such as one that is kept on a major exchange.

HEXADECIMAL NOTATION

Actual data is expressed in base 16 (hexadecimal; 0-f) as opposed to base 2 (binary) or base 10 (counting; 0-9).

HYPERLEDGER

Hyperledger, an open software blockchain umbrella organization, was established by the Linux Foundation. Read more about HyperLedger in detail.

HYPERLEDGER COMPOSER     

The blockchain app development platform Hyperledger Composer makes it easier to create blockchain applications on Hyperledger Fabric.

HYPERLEDGER FABRIC

The toolkit for IBM’s private (permissioned) blockchain.

I

ICO

A new token initiative launches its initial coin offering (commonly known as an ICO) whenever it offers early tokens in return for cash up ahead. These have been employed as means of fraud and, as a result, are governed by laws and regulations that are constantly changing.

IDE (INTEGRATED DEVELOPMENT ENVIRONMENT)    

Mostly a raw code editor, construction automated tool, and debugging application for software developers.

IDENTICON / ADDRESSIDENTICON / ADDRESSICON

The eye-catching color blob represents your location in MetaMask. It is a simple approach to check the accuracy of your address. One may pick between jazz icons or blockies, to be more precise.

IDENTITY

The details about an entity that computer systems utilize to specifically describe a person, group, program, or gadget.

IMMUTABILITY

The impossibility of modification or alteration. Data cannot be changed after it has been added to a public blockchain, which is a crucial component of different blockchains. The foundation for business and commerce over blockchain networks is all this immutability.

INFURA

Infura, a subsidiary of ConsenSys, provides backend connectivity to the Ethereum platform using well-known HTTP / WebSockets protocols. Before Infura, programmers had to manage the branches of the systems they intended to communicate with; Infura gives them access to those networks through some kind of collection of APIs. That makes it possible for creators of webpages and dapps to connect that with the Ethereum network at scale.

INSTANTIATE

To demonstrate or offer proof through anecdotes (a theory, concept, or the like).

INTERNAL TRANSACTION

Upon the Ethereum platform, a trade inside smart contracts instead of accounts is an internal transaction. These are typically essential to completing the activity in issue and may be seen on Etherscan. However, they are notable because they are not part of the blockchain and cannot pay gas costs.

INTEROPERABILITY

The capacity for data interchange and communication between several systems. Several blockchains are incompatible due to different design choices, although several initiatives are attempting to link different blockchains.

INTERPLANETARY FILE SYSTEM (IPFS)

As for the Ethereum platform and the entire web, a decentralized file-storing and reference system, a free software protocol called IFPS, makes it possible to distribute, store and share multimedia without depending on one point of failure. The distributed data system allows programs to operate more quickly, securely, and openly.

INVARIANT

A function, amount, or attribute that does not change after applying a specific transformation.

J

JAVA

Oracle created the computer language known as Java. Before running, it may be compiled or understood by Java Virtual Machine (JVM). Prominent server-side programming languages include Java.

JAVASCRIPT

Due to its versatility, JavaScript, a computer language created for websites and browsers, has subsequently been incorporated into many different applications. It is a programming language that complies with ECMAScript.

JSON-RPC

JSON-RPC is a technique for transferring data between computer systems that predates the development of public blockchains. Although JSON-RPC is not its distinguishing technological characteristic, it was selected as a protocol for transferring data among blockchain networks and online browsers or wallets, leading to the emergence of the term “RPC networks” for such networks.

K

KEYSTORE FILE

A Keystore document is a unique, encrypted JSON representation of a secret key.

KNOW YOUR CUSTOMER (KYC)

A procedure through which a company must confirm the clientele’s identification and basic knowledge (such as residence and financial data). For instance, existing rules and regulations oblige financial institutions and organizations to record and report consumer transactions and private details.

L

LAYER 2 

A blockchain designed to extend another system is known as an L2 network or Layer 2 system. The Ethereum environment consists of well-known instances like Arbitrum, Optimism, or StarkNet. By depending upon Ethereum Main-net for security services and optimizing for performance and scalability, these networks are particularly designed to process a huge quantity of transactions quickly. Despite not being a component of Ethereum’s procedure scaling initiatives, these systems are regarded as “scaling solutions.”

LIGHT CLIENT

A program that runs on or accesses a program readily accessible by a distant computer is referred to as the “client” in technology. Clients are indeed the applications that synchronize blockchain data and engage in a role in network consensus in public blockchains.

Users on reduced or low-storage devices, like cellphones and laptops, may retain nearly the same level of protection as a processing core while only obtaining a portion of the overall network state thanks to a lite client, which only gets a tiny portion of the blockchain.

LIQUID DEMOCRACY

A form of governance in which people can cast their ballots through friends, legislators, or subject area experts. Inside a liquid democracy, Bernadette may cast her support for Ahmad, who will then cast his support both for Bernadette and herself. When every member of a Decentralized Autonomous Organization (DAO) has the power to vote or transfer their vote to another person, this type of governance is known as “liquid democracy.”

LIQUIDITY

Liquidity refers to the accessibility of resources to a firm or marketplace. A commodity is regarded as more “liquid” when it can quickly turn into cash. In contrast, an asset becomes more illiquid and difficult to convert into money. For instance, because stocks may be quickly turned into currency, they are seen as very liquid assets, but real estate is regarded as illiquid. An asset’s risk possibility and market value are impacted by its liquidity.

M

MAINNET

The biggest blockchain system on which a certain protocol is implemented, or the chain the industry deems is the most useful. Mainnets often reflect the genuine purpose of professional developers and are where actual wealth is produced.

MARKET CAP

Short for “market capitalization,” it denotes the amount of money invested in a specific economic sector, a firm, or an item. The market capitalization of a publicly listed corporation is the sum of the dollar values of its outstanding shares.

MAXIMAL EXTRACTABLE VALUE (MEV)

MEV, which was formerly recognized as Miner Extractable Value, is indeed a broad term for a complex concept that relates to inclusion and exclusion, but also the reordering of exchanges inside a block to derive more significance from it, typically in overabundance of what a verifier (or miner, on PoW networks) will indeed receive from generating the block. MEV encompasses practices like frontrunning, arbitrage, and potentially criminal behaviors used to profit from the transactions of many other users.

MERKLE PROOF 

The procedure of going from a leaf towards the root of something like a Merkle tree and comparing every level against the one before it to obtain a special hash for the tree’s design.

MERKLE ROOT

The cryptographic sum among all Merkle tree hashes. This represents a hash of every transaction hash. There is a network of something like a blockchain. This hash may be used to quickly demonstrate that information inside a chain is full and in agreement with the network.

MERKLE TREE    

A tree where each non-leaf node gets marked with the cryptographic hash of titles of its leaf node, and each leaf node gets marked with the hash of something like a block of data.

MESH

A system of closely linked, loosely tied people, products, and investments known as ConsenSys Mesh promote the web3 and, indeed, the Ethereum ecosystem.

METAMASK

The Ethereum network has a software wallet called Metamask. It operates as a chrome plugin and offers support for almost all DApps, such as  NFTs, games, DEXs, wallet-based authentication, DeFi protocols, and many others.

MINECRAFT

In the famous computer game Minecraft, objects are represented by bricks or cubes. Blockchain technology is not used in Minecraft.

MINER

A miner participates in a public blockchain with the capacity to add new blocks. There may be a predefined order in which blocks are produced, or miners might compete to generate the next block within the chain.

MINER, ASIC

A miner performs block generation and verification using an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC).

MINER, CPU

A miner produces and validates blocks using its central processing unit. For mining techniques that can’t be run in parallel & need greater generalized processing, CPU miners are utilized.

MINER, GPU

A miner produces and validates blocks using its graphics processor. GPU miners thrive at mining techniques that contain several distinct processes that can be executed simultaneously.

MINING

The process of confirming Blockchain transactional data. Uses electricity and processing power to tackle “puzzles.” Depending on your processing power, mining can earn you money.

MINING POOL  

A group of miners band with each other to pool their computing resources across a network & decide to divide the rewards when a new block is discovered in the pool.

MIST

Utilizing a browser to download and use Dapps

MNEMONIC PHRASE: 

The Hidden Recovery Word, often called “seed phrase” is a different term for a string of words corresponding to an extremely lengthy cryptographic key employed to create and manage all addresses inside a cryptocurrency wallet.

MONERO (XMR) 

A Blockchain 1.0 network that goes above public key identifiers in terms of anonymity by using ring signatures. The details in operation, such as the sum, sender, and receiver, are only known to the transaction participants.

MONEY TRANSMITTING

The transfer of value via a middleman from one individual to another.

MSP (MEMBERSHIP SERVICE PROVIDER) 

One or more MSPs may control a blockchain network using Hyperledger Fabric.

MULTI-SIGNATURE WALLET (MULTISIG)

A digital asset wallet that requires numerous keys to view & conduct transactions. Usually, before someone can use the wallet, a certain number of people must authorize or “sign” a transaction. Unlike other wallets that only need one signature to authorize a transaction, this wallet does.

N

NETWORK

A group of players united by a shared goal and related to one another.

NFT

The term “fungibility” describes an object’s capacity to be traded for another when referring to Non-Fungible Tokens (NFTs). Read more about NFT in detail.

NFT AGGREGATOR

NFT markets, or sites where you may purchase and sell NFTs, were established during the initial surge of interest.

NODE

A duplicate ledger on that blockchain run by a client 

NODE, FULL

A node that can access the full state of the blockchain.

NODE, LIGHT

A node capable of validating the chain but missing some necessary block state information.

NONCE 

A unique integer used once in a cryptographic transmission

NON-FUNGIBLE

The quality is that it is not exchangeable for similar things.

NOTHING AT STAKE PROBLEM    

After a difficult fork, this one is brought on by validator nodes validating all transactions on both old and new technology.

NPM (NODE PACKAGE MANAGER)

Node.js is the default package management runtime environment. The application’s dependencies are managed via NPM.

O

OAUTH PROTOCOL    

Third-party services utilize this Public Authorization protocol to store and share user data without disclosing their passcode.

OFF-CHAIN

Information is kept off the blockchain.

OMMER (AKA UNCLE) 

A fully mined block that hasn’t yet been included in the blockchain.

OMMER BLOCK

Miners got rewards for being the first to mine a new block under the Proof of Work (PoW) consensus process. However, occasionally a block would be mined immediately following and in opposition to the previous block.

ON-CHAIN

Information is kept on the blockchain.

ON-CHAIN GOVERNANCE    

A method for controlling and carrying out modifications to a blockchain for cryptocurrencies

OPCODE

A processor’s machine-level command. The most fundamental instructions, like adding, multiplying, and bit shifting, are known as opcodes. Before even being delivered to the CPU, higher-level programs are constructed from opcodes from human-readable commands.

OPEN SOURCE

Software products grant users the right to use, improve, reuse, or change the product’s material, design papers, or source code.

OPTIMISTIC ROLLUP

A roll-up that performs only a scam proof when fraud is allegedly occurring and else trusts the legitimacy and trustworthiness of operations.

ORACLES

An agent who locates and authenticates real-world events before sending the data to a blockchain such that smart contracts may utilize it.

ORDERER NETWORK

A computer web that enables resource sharing between nodes.

P

P2P (PEER TO PEER) 

A term or concept used to describe computer networks where any machine may function like a server for others, enabling common access to data & peripherals without the requirement for a centralized server. Read more about Peer-To-Peer in detail.

PARITY

Software engineers and research scientists frequently have used the phrase “has parity” to refer to anything being “equal in functionality or other significant attribute” with another object.

PERMISSIONED LEDGER

A blockchain system is contrasted to a public blockchain, where access to the record or system needs authorization from a single person or group. Holders of permissioned ledgers might be one or numerous.

PKI (PUBLIC KEY INFRASTRUCTURE)

A collection of responsibilities, rules, and processes for managing public-key encryption & digital certificates, including their creation, management, distribution, usage, storage, and revocation.

PLASMA

One of the systems being developed and implemented to grow the Ethereum network safely is “Plasma.”

POS/POW HYBRID

A hybrid agreement approach that applies both proof-of-stake & proof-of-work consensus techniques. Blocks are verified by voters (stakeholders) and miners using this hybrid consensus technique to provide fair system management.

PRAGMA-LINE OR PRAGMA

Specifies the type of compiler that the smart contract utilizes.

PRIVATE BLOCKCHAIN    

Blockchain, which contains access restrictions. Contrary to a public blockchain, a blockchain network uses a mechanism termed byzantine fault tolerance rather than consensus mechanisms such as POW or POS (BFT). A BFT network becomes less safe since BFT isn’t a trustless technology.

PRIVATE CURRENCY

A form of payment or token created by a private person or business.

PRIVATE/PUBLIC KEY

A document or data is encrypted using a public key, a distinctive character string produced from a private key. The messages or information must be decrypted using the private key.

PRIVATE KEY

One piece of an asymmetrical decryption and encryption public/private shared key. A communication that has been symmetrically encrypted using the associated public key may be unlocked using a secret key. Any individual other than the owner is prohibited from seeing the private keys. A private key can no longer be used as a source of verification once it has been made known.

PRIVATE KEY INFRASTRUCTURE (PKI)

A collection of guidelines and regulations used in networks to control public-key encryption for identification.

PROOF OF ACTIVITY    

Engaged Stakeholders were compensated for maintaining a full node.

PROOF OF AUTHORITY (POA)

A private key-based consensus technique that allows for the creation of all blocks and the validation of all operations by a singular private key.

PROOF OF BURN    

In essence, coins are burned when miners deliver them to something like an inactive address. The client is then compensated when the burns are added to the blockchain.

PROOF OF CAPACITY    

The hard disc inside a plot (storing solutions on a hard drive before the mining begins). The hard drive that finds an answer the quickest wins the block.

PROOF OF ELAPSED TIME    

A consensus process wherein nodes should pause for a randomly selected amount of time before receiving rewards from the initial node to accomplish this.

PROOF-OF-LIQUIDITY

A declaration made in a cryptographically secure manner by a dependable auditor that a person owns the specified quantity of resources. For cryptocurrencies that are linked to a physical asset or commodities, Proof-of-Liquidity is utilized.

PROOF OF STAKE(POS)

A consensus process that selects the block’s owner depending on their income or (Stake). 

PROOF-OF-STAKE, DELEGATED (DPOS)

A Proof-of-Stake (PoS)-based consensus system in which participants can choose block producers By collaboratively selecting the same block producer, DPoS is advantageous for pooling stakes and enabling numerous small-value accounts to engage effectively.

PROOF OF WORK (POW)

A consensus technique that necessitates a client to “mine” or cracks a challenging arithmetic problem to validate a transaction.

PROOF-OF-WORK, DELEGATED (DPOW)

Finding an answer is identical in Delegated Proof-of-Work as in Proof-of-Work, except the actor who discovers the answer may transfer block-producing powers to some other actor.

PROTOCOL

A formalized “protocol” consists of guidelines dictating how a procedure should be followed.

PROVENANCE

A product’s complete lifetime history, such as its custody chain and everything supporting paperwork for the value-added services and tasks that went into its creation.

PUB/SUB

Publish/Subscribe

PUBLIC BLOCKCHAIN

A completely open system where anybody may participate in operations, help decide which blocks should be included in the chain using the consensus process, and preserve and look over the chain’s data.

PUBLIC KEY CRYPTOGRAPHY

Encrypting with two keys that are connected logically. A key, both public and private. The private key cannot be derived from the public key.

Q

R

RELAYER

A party or organization that maintains an off-chain order book is a relayer in decentralized finance (DeFi). Relayers assist traders in finding counter-parties and securely moving orders among them.

REST API (REPRESENTATIONAL STATE TRANSFER API)    

Establishes limitations depending upon HTTP

RING SIGNATURE

A cryptographic annotation on a secret key that is confirmed or decrypted using several working keys. Ring signatures are employed to conceal the real parties to that activity or to grant authorization at the collective level.

RIPPLE

A Blockchain 1.0 network that aims to link banks & payment processors. Several significant industry participants, like American Express & Santander, support Ripple.

ROLLUPS

Rollups, called “roll-ups,” is part of the architecture and tools being developed as scalability approaches for the Ethereum platform.

RPC

Data is moved among endpoints via a mechanism called the Remote Method Call.

RPC (REMOTE PROCEDURE CALLS) 

A method that allows one application to ask another program running on a network for service.

S

SATOSHI NAKAMOTO

A mysterious person or organization developed the Bitcoin protocol to address the “double spend” problem with digital currencies.

SCALABILITY

The capacity of a system to keep operating even after the number of players reaches infinite there in the blockchain sector. As additional actors join the system, non-scalable networks become slower and less effective. Scalability may be explained in terms of the hard drive space needed, the amount of computing power needed, the throughput of messages, the bandwidth, and other elements.

SCATTER

A Bitcoin, Ethereum, & EOS wallet application.

SDK

A development kit gives a programmer the resources they need to develop apps for a certain platform.

SECURE HASH ALGORITHM (SHA) 

A hashing algorithm developed by the National Security Agency of the United States. Its numerical suffix serves as a marker for the algorithm’s specific structure. For instance, SHA256 generates a hash digest of 256 bits.

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (SEC)

There in the States of America, a national government agency is in charge of monitoring and controlling investments. Most cryptocurrencies fall under the definition of a security under existing law and, therefore, must be recognized by SEC to be utilized lawfully in the U.s.

SECURITY TOKEN OFFERING (STO)

A sale of tokens through a major exchange to qualified buyers in which the tokens are formally recognized as securities. SEC registration is required for STOs.

SEED PHRASE

A haphazard string of words can be utilized to find a missing wallet.

SELF-EXECUTING

Operating alone and without any other entity having any influence over it. Smart contracts that self-execute save expenses & overhead by doing away with the requirement for an arbitrator and third-party trust.

SERENITY

Ethereum is working on different technological improvements that, among many other factors, will enable significantly higher transaction speed. Initially named “Serenity,” the strategy that defined these adjustments has since lost favor in favor of detailed explanations of the enhancements.

SERIALISATION

Transforming a data structure into something like a series of bytes. Recursive-length prefix encoding is an encoding scheme that Ethereum employs internally (RLP).

SHA256

A 256-bit hash decomposition using the safe hash method (SHA).

SHARDING

Splitting a blockchain into a collection of smaller, parallel-capable element networks known as shards.

SIDECHAIN

A separate blockchain is linked to a primary blockchain by two-way pegs, allowing assets to be transferred between the primary blockchain and, indeed, the sidechain. Only essential processing operations on the primary blockchain sidechains are indeed a method for allowing scalability and boosting transaction speed.

SIMPLE AGREEMENT FOR FUTURE TOKENS (SAFT)

A way for investors to buy tokens out of a project still in development. These contracts resemble Simple Agreements for Future Equity (SAFE) contracts, except they are valued in percentages of tokens instead of percentages of business equity.

SKYCOIN

A Blockchain 3.0 network that supports all the other blockchain applications and utilizes the Web-of-Trust consensus methodology is still under construction. An ISP isn’t necessary when using SkyCoin to build trustless, ad-hoc mesh systems. The creators claim that the system will be capable of hundreds of transactions each second and enable users to keep track of the blockchains that interest them.

SLASHING CONDITION

A slashing condition inside a Proof of Stake (PoS) agreement method is an event that, when triggered, results in the destruction of the validator’s deposit. 

SLOT

A new node can (or cannot) be submitted within a slot, that is, a 12-second window within the Ethereum Proof of Stake agreement. An epoch is composed of every 32 entries. 

SMART CONTRACT

Contract that self-executes and has the provisions of the agreement codified. Read more about Smart Contract in detail.

SOFT FORK

A modification to the blockchain system that renders only previously legitimate blocks & transactions illegitimate.

SOLIDITY

A language for writing smart contracts that were created for the Ethereum Platform. The syntax is similar to that of C++ and Javascript, and it compiles into eWASM.

STABLECOIN

A cryptocurrency backed by a property or assets intended to reduce the price fluctuations of coins or tokens.

STAKING

On the Ethereum Proof of Stake system, users who want to engage in consensus should first tie up, or “stake,” 32 ETH into a smart contract. If their verifier acts maliciously or fails to encounter performance standards, this ETH could be “slashed” (taken from them and “burned,” put out of circulation). There are different Proof of Stake systems in use on some other systems.

It would arguably be much more appropriate & informative to simply refer to this as “locking up tokens,” regardless of whether this is the standard definition of the word. Similar activities conducted at the stage of a decentralized exchange (DEX) or perhaps another dapp are sometimes referred to as “staking.”

STATE

The collection of information that a blockchain is needed to keep a record of is currently relevant to chain operations.

STATE CHANNEL

A method for performance improvement and lowering costs wherein blockchain transactions get completed off-chain, gathered, and afterward published towards the main chain like a single exchange.

STATE MACHINE

A computing model. A state machine only has a finite number of states at any given time. It must be transformed using a state transition mechanism to move to a state. As each block indicates a modification to the state and transactions work as state transition mechanisms, blockchains resemble state machines.

SWAP

The process through which users trade one token for the other has been recognized as swapping. The specific activity, a swap, has become more common as the number of distinct blockchain projects & currencies has increased. Users of MetaMask have access to MetaMask Swaps, a robust aggregator that gives data on swaps occurring throughout the ecosystem.

SZABO

A measurement of ETH. Examine “ether (denominations)” as well.

T

TANGLE

A consensus process where transactions should validate the truthfulness of at minimum two earlier transactions. A transaction becomes much more immutable and ever more precise than it is. The number of transactions that link back to a transaction and how immutable these references are determined a transaction’s immutability.

TESTNET

A blockchain system branch that features flexible access rules to enable quick application development even without the burden of a main system. Before new additions are implemented on the main chain, testnets can be utilized to validate them.

TESTNET KOVAN

A Proof of Authority-based Ethereum testnet accessible using MetaMask.

TESTNET RINKEBY

A Proof of Authority-based Ethereum testnet accessible via MetaMask. Rinkeby set the deprecation of it till the end of 2023 after the switch to Proof of Stake.

TESTNET ROPSTEN

An Ethereum testnet that employed Proof of Work got discontinued after the switch to Proof of Stake.

TOKEN

Constructed onto an existing blockchain, representing a digital asset

TOKENIZATION

The idea of turning products, services, or company strategies into distinct, exchangeable units stored on a blockchain or equivalent systems. Physical items may be tokenized by connecting their distinctive identities with on-chain references.

TOKENLESS LEDGER

A ledger that does not require its own money to function.

TOKENOMICS

The research, creation, and use of blockchain-based financial distribution and management systems.

TOKEN GENERATION EVENT

The development and initial transaction of a blockchain currency or token.

TOKEN, NON-FUNGIBLE (NFT)

Individual token pieces can be mixed regardless of whether they are of the same kind. NFTs can stand in for specific assets like a property title or a certain piece of art.

TOKEN, SECURITY 

Tokens stand in for a corporate share or even another type of asset. Specific procedures for transferring property following rules are present in tokens. Security tokens, which are comparable to preferred stock in a firm, may provide its owners extra rights, such as voting privileges in a decentralized autonomous organization (DAO)

TOKEN, STABLE

a cryptocurrency that makes an effort to maintain a constant value compared to some other currency, usually fiat.

TOKEN TYPE – ERC-20

A fungible Ethereum currency standard that specifies several required functions, such as those to get the total supply, send money from one wallet to another, and authorize transactions. Every ERC-20 token generally includes multiple copies stored in several crypto wallets.

TOKEN TYPE – ERC-721

Non-fungible Ethereum currency standards are also specified by several required operations, such as getting the total supply, sending money from one wallet to another, and authorizing transactions. Each ERC-721 coin is distinct and cannot be exchanged for another token.

TOKEN, UTILITY

A coin has used other than just exchanging wealth among actors. A utility token is a type of cryptocurrency that may be used with a DApp to carry out tasks.

TOTAL-COMPLETE

Despite being less general than a Turing-complete language, a functioning computer language might be preferable owing to the absence of non-deterministic operations. Loops that never end are not possible in total-complete programs. Because the compiler is constantly aware of how many cycles a loop would undergo, it may thus optimize them. Provably terminating processes are an assurance for total-complete functions. 

TOTAL VALUE LOCKED (TVL)

Total Value Locked, or TVL, is a commonly used acronym throughout the crypto sector. Thus it’s crucial to understand the details. It often indicates the amount of value invested in something in token form.

TRANSACTION

A single entry into a blockchain changes some aspects of the data on the blockchain. Transactions could exchange bitcoins, produce log events, or carry out smart contract operations based on how the blockchain is implemented.

TRANSACTION BLOCK

A grouping of operations on a blockchain into such a group or block, which can be stored on the blockchain via hashing.

TRANSACTIONS PER SECOND (TPS)

A way to gauge a blockchain’s pace. A major obstacle to adopting blockchain for commercial, mainly financial, applications is the low TPS of most blockchains.

TRANSACTION FEE

A sum of money, usually the native coin of a blockchain, that a miner charges for altering data on the network. Transaction costs are typically erratic and highly reliant on the state of the market.

TRANSACTION POOL

A list of every transaction which has crossed the networks but has not yet been added to a block. Depending on whatever transactions each node is informed of, transaction pools may differ from one node to the next.

TRANSPARENCY

Any user in a network or transaction may observe the transactions occurring on the blockchain, a key characteristic of public blockchains.

TRUST

Assurance in a person or thing’s sincerity.

TRUSTLESS

The property of not needing faith. In trustless platforms, malicious actors cannot harm the network without the system as a whole cooperating. Trustless systems use verifiable data or actions to run and verify the character of other actors.

TURING COMPLETE LANGUAGE   

A language that can carry out computations that a machine can

TURING-MACHINE

A device that can carry out every algorithm or operation a machine can carry out.

U

UBUNTU

An open-source operating platform that is free to use, such as Linux

UTXO (UNSPENT TRANSACTION OUTPUTS)

To assess a transaction’s validity, unspent transaction outputs are usually employed.

V

VALIDATOR

An individual who gets involved within a Proof of Stake (PoS) agreement. Validators must invest 32 ETH to be added to the validator list in Ethereum’s Proof of Stake system.

VALIDITY PROOF

The evidence provided with particular kinds of rollups to support the validity of the transactions

VALIDIUM

A component of the technologies created for the Ethereum network’s scalability.

VIPER

The formal presentation of smart contracts using a computer language

VIRTUAL MACHINE (VM)

An operating system that runs on a computer inside of another os. On a portion of a bigger machine’s capabilities, virtual machines could individually replicate a particular machine.

W

WALLET

Keeps your digital assets in storage.

WALLET (COLD)

A wallet without an internet connection.

WALLET (HOT) 

A wallet with internet access.

WALLET (MULTISIGNATURE) 

A wallet where completing a transaction calls for several digital signatures.

WEB ASSEMBLY (WASM)

Top internet browsers support a virtualized device’s binary command language. By utilizing WASM, programmers may add features that are otherwise impossible to do with normal HTML/JavaScript. C++ and Rust are only two of the numerous high-level computer languages that may be translated into WASM. A variation of WASM called eWASM is implemented by the virtual machine of Ethereum and offers further capabilities for blockchain systems.

WEB3/WEB 3.0

The words “the decentralized web” or “Web 3.0” are generally interchangeable and are frequently used to describe, generally speaking, the blockchain & decentralized tech environments & groups.

X

Y

Z

ZEPPELIN (OR OPEN ZEPPELIN)

A group of smart contract programmers with similar interests

ZERO ADDRESS

On the Ethereum platform, a specific transaction is sometimes used to record the formation of a new smart contract. Here on the system is sent to an address known as Zero Address.

ZERO-KNOWLEDGE (ZK) PROOF

A mathematical illustration of a claim whose result can be computed without knowledge of the input data. Zero-knowledge proofs demonstrate that an individual is in the knowledge of precise data without actually disclosing that data. They are particularly helpful with cryptocurrencies since they may be used to demonstrate the validity of transactions without disclosing the sender, receiver, or payment amount. Research on ZK is currently in its early stages.

ZK-SNARKS

Brief Zero-Knowledge The decentralized internet and the remarkable non-interactive ARguments for Knowledge technology depend on them for scale. These explanations from Ethereum Organization are a useful introduction since they are technically challenging and might be intimidating.

#

51% Attack

Whenever a blockchain’s over 50% of miners initiate an attack upon that remaining nodes or clients to double spend/steal resources.

51% OFFENSIVE

A 51% assault is underway if one individual or one group of individuals controls more than 50% of the channel’s computing power or mining hashing rates. By seizing over mining activities, blocking or altering operations, and double-spending money, this organization effectively has access to the network and the ability to harm a cryptocurrency.